Ground, marine and air border terminals are paths for transporting goods and passenger among countries. As border terminals main application is facilitating and accelerating goods replacement and coming and going between two countries, but with regard to this point that these centers are as entrance gates to country and are the first interface point with its identity, are symbol of cultural social, political and economic conditions of that country.
Iran due to its special geographic situation in past and present in international transportation relations discipline with using opportunities because of political changes derived from middle Asian countries independency in the region now and more than ever is seeking to recovery its historical credit position in international transportation field.
Road maintenance and transport organization in order to directing macroeconomic plans to compatible with these plans and using more than Iranian exceptional situation for goods transit, has paid attention to border terminals formation and starting up in state’s ground sources.
Border formation history
Before civilization formed, there was no border like today's borders. By forming large empires, in previous centuries, benchmarking territory limit became necessary and only those times empires (Iran, Rome, Greece and China) decided to determine their dominant countries and those marks were the first shape of today's geographical borders.
In Iranian legends have quoted in very centuries ago after several years war between Iran and Turan both decided to determine border between Iran and Turan by releasing an arrow through an Iranian hero's arc. Then Arash put an arrow in his arc and during sun rise released it at Damavand's hillside. Arrow tore front of air and progressed until launched across Jeyhun River and this legend shows first those day's people's attempts in order to determine their country borders,
The border we know today is a modern example of limit in those times.
Border terminals construction importance
Increasing population and coming and going among countries and travel and volume and diversification of trade goods and transportation methods and development of ground transportation fleets and modern operational methods led to importance of regulation and rules making for replacing passengers and trade goods from borders, and mentioned changes with increasingly demands and also implementing new regulations and rules led to gates become modern form and because of this terminals constructed based on today’s need.
Border guarding history in Iran
Border deformed by establishing large governments and empires such as Iran, Rome, Greece and ancient China empires. Empires for new development or protect their boundaries were provided several battles and borders subjected to change and fluctuations for many centuries. Iran borders from east to west by western coasts of India Ocean to coasts of Adriatic Sea and from north to south by beyond Seyhun to Africa developed. Iran to transport goods from east to west and visa versa became important player and placed in the center of east and west trade and Silk Road became this transport path. Thus, Iranian in greatness of Iran was always border guarder of eastern earth civilization.
At that time special stations constructed for passengers entrance and exit and for their arrival and departure particular regulations determined. These places were gates that government authorities were allowed entrepreneurs and passengers to enter and exit towards receiving costs of toll.
This action led to participation in entrepreneurs’ goods transportation profit and also to control their entrance and exit in border.
Main reasons for constructing border terminals
1. Dispersion and numerous authorized organizations and institutions in border points
2. Integration and discipline in operations and preventing applicant’s waste of time
3. Preventing incompatibility in executive affairs
4. Facilitating and accelerating coming and going in borders
5. Providing safety and welfare for passengers by using welfare facilities and utilities
6. Performing optimum regulations and compatibility among organizations and authorized institutions
7. Protecting nation and state merit with beautiful terminal construction
8. Management of part and administrating border affairs under one management supervision with each organization’s natural independency protection
9. Building utilities and facilities that show economic capacities and cultural and social features of nation and state
10. Separating services to arrival and departure passengers in separate halls
11. Providing safety and welfare for drivers with different nationalities by using advanced methods of servicing in trade hall
12. Separating bus and truck entrance and exit in separate gates
Organizing authorized ground entrance and exit sources in country
“Organizing authorized ground entrance and exit sources in country” plan was ratified in seventieth session of state administrative higher council in 20th Nov 1996 with president’s leadership.
Forming organizing council of ground authorized entrance and exit sources in country with leadership of road and transportation minister and compatibility among organizations and facilitating and accelerating passenger and goods transportation were subjects that investigated and ratified.
Based on this ratified, administrating activities about compatibility affairs in border terminal are ultra- partial tasks which perform based on participative management under terminal management supervision.
Host country border terminal image
Border terminal is the first place that foreigners face it during their arrival to other countries and forms the first image of that host country. Authorities and present personnel behavior and function in a terminal show symbol and overall view of that country in the person’s point of view whose enter to the country for the first time.
Work circulation in border terminals
Terminal’s interior spaces specially places where passengers use in two entrance and exit halls are designed to have maximum welfare facilities and in these halls organizations and institutions such as passport, presidency center, human, livestock, plant quarantine custom, standard institute, bank and road maintenance and transportation organization with different welfare facilities such as communications post office, W. C, mosque, bank, buffet, and waiting halls for passengers are predicted.
Green space and public area making and also proper terminal’s urban furniture have facilitated access of passengers to available facilities.
Services facilities and acceleration
In a border terminal there are two separate entrance and exit ways that have the same established parts in each way with a difference in way of placing exit path parts in transverse to that of entrance way.
Goods transportation through transit or export and import may boom transportation industry and quarantine valuable consequences which effect mostly on state’s commerce and economy. In the past, goods transportation was performed through borders, but today because of large goods volume and diversification and passing thousands of trucks and trailer through borders extensive integration is provided which parts of the related regulations and rules are being performed in border terminals.
Acceleration in servicing terminal trade transportation section facilitates goods passage and welfare for drivers with different nationalities and finally facilitates transportation, commercial development and goods transit and country’s economic development.
How organizations and institutions establish
The way how authorized parts and organizations in border terminals establish are based on expertise studies and state’s ground arrival and exit sources organizing council verification.
In a border terminal, organizations and institutions establishment is predicted in order to allow passenger to use provided services in different parts such as passport, custom, quarantine and also waiting halls and their included services like buffet, masque, W. C, bank and so forth with discipline and without wasting time and properly.
There are two entrance and exit ways in border terminal and in both there are similar facilities and utilities for meeting passenger’s need and also arrival gates for truck and bus is predicted and constructed separately in most terminals.
General structure of new border terminals
New terminals contain series of advanced facilities and equipments which all state organizations and institutions agents are settled there and do official goods and vehicles import and export ceremonies in shortest time.
1. Structure of border terminal directly depends on border point importance and the capacity of passenger and goods passage. Required minimum and area land for border terminal and facilities, equipments extension and active number of personnel are variable function of application and goods and passenger’s capacity and passage.
2. In addition to comply with required preparations to facilitate passenger entrance and exit and offices and institutes and organizations settled in terminal, maximum facilities with using modern and advanced equipments are being considered to construct terminals.
3. Beauty, modern architecture and using advanced operational methods in terminal construction are important points.
4. Public area making and predicted green space in terminals make them spectacular beauty and freshness and multiple their views.